Here is a summary of some of the points from Dr. Weaver’s lectures

**Week 1**

** (05-27-08) **

Lecture Title: Energy Scales- From Megahertz to Terahertz and Back

Atoms moving at a speed of about 500m/s corresponding to the speed of about 300k, approximately 1/4eV. This corresponds to wavelength of infrared light

Getting towards visible light, the vibrational modes are excited.

Visible light energies-> 2-3 per photon/atom. Room temperature is about 40ev.

From 1eV->1200eV

Chemistry
forces: Electrostatics and quantum. At 13.5eV is the ionization constant of
hydrogen, ˝ of an atomic unit of energy. E= 1/2mc^{2} (q/4.5K)^{2}
*[other factors]

Kline’s Structure Constant

From 100MeV->1GeV: Neutron and Proton substructure

1GeV->10GeV: Quarks and Gluons

GeV-> TeV: Substructure of Matter

Cosmic rays visible up to 10^{-15} eV

Cosmic microwave rays at a temperature of 3K-> then we are back at MeV

**(05-29-08) **

Lecture Title: Waves and Lasers

From Maxwell’s Equations: Electric charge produces current

Electric current produces a magnetic field

Changing magnetic field produces a current, Faraday’s law

Dispersion of light

The real part and the imaginary part

Lasers

Quantum state of electromagnetic field -> no photon present.

For stimulated emission/coherent phase

The coherent phase is a laser. Quantum phase is a superposition of quantum states.

Two things about lasers: a) Excited medium b) Resonator (Optical cavity)

The Transition coefficient and the incident coefficient.

Condition or threshold for the operation of the laser -> Imaginary part of refractive index -> absorption & loss.

Gain -> excited population – ground state population

**(06-03-08) **

Lecture Title: Atoms and Molecules

From Classical to quantum Mechanics

Classical angular momentum-> ˝ Iω^{2} = L^{2}/2I

Quantum Mechanics = L (Ћ) π/2MI

Schrodinger’s Equation

Energy Operator – Hamiltonian + Wave Function

Hψ = Eψ + ίЋω

Hψ = ίЋ δQ/δt

Probability Density dependence on time?

Lecture Title: How Molecules Work

(06-05-08)

Lecture Title: Superposition in Quantum Mechanics

Schrodinger Equation-> ψ = Hφ

Quantum Beat Spectroscopy

Ψ (φ) = c_{1} φ_{1} + c_{2}
φ_{2}

Fluorescence amplitude = Integral φ (over the decay operator)

Rabi Oscillations: 2 states, electric field applied to coupled field

Neutrino Oscillations

Lecture Title: Are atoms Real

Yield of scattered particles = Number of particles * (σ_{t}I_{Aί}/A).

Yield per particle = Flux * cross sectional area

Detected Yield = Efficiency * Flux*Cross sectional area

Δ Yield per target = Flux * (δI/δΩ)

Differential Angle

**(06-12-08)**

No lecture, tornado hits campus.

Lecture Title: Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom

We learned about the quantum theory of angular momentum as well as

The Schrodinger Equation

Dirac Theory with Correction

The Fine Structure

The Hyperfine Structure

Lamb Shift

Lecture Title: Symmetry and Neutrino Physics

Linear, Elliptical Circular Polarization field

Right hand circularly polarized -> E_{0}Cos
(ωt-nz)

The relative phase is physically relevant

Real part -> E_{0}(x+y) e^{ίωt}

Lecture interrupted abruptly because we had to evacuate the building.

**(06-26-08)**

No lecture, Cardwell Hall is closed and inaccessible

Lecture Title: Relative Phases and Neutrino Mixing

Classical physics

Intensity of light, e.e=E_{1}^{2}Cos^{2}ωt

Time Average Value = ˝(E_{1}^{2} +E_{2}^{2})
= 1/2E_{0}^{2}

From above relation we see that E_{1}=E_{0}*Cosθ,
E_{2} = E_{0}*Sinθ

E(t) =E_{0}*Cosωt (xCosθ + ŷSinθ)->
written as linearly polarized time dependence of intensity

E(t)=RexE_{0}e^{iωt} + E_{0}ye^{iωt}

Photon has spin and Г =1

In classical physics, Average Value of Cosθ = Sinθ
= 0, and average Value of Cos^{2}θ= Sin^{2}θ= 1/2

Now to quantum mechanics

Let φ be some general quantum mechanical state.

Key question - Given that a photon is in some quantum mechanical state, what is the probability that it’s in state φ?

Answer = (|ψ, φ|)^{2}

Central mystery

Before observation quantum mechanical state was a single
vector, (φ_{x} + φ_{y})/

After observation, quantum state is either φ_{x }or
φ_{y}

**(07-03-08)**

Lecture Title: Forces between Molecules

We discussed the Central Field theorem

Lowest Energy Configuration

Chemical bond requires shared pair of electrons-> From Coulomb’s law and quantum mechanics.

Quantum Mechanics explains why atoms weakly attract at long distances, strongly repelling at small distances.

**(07-08-08)**

Lecture: Graduate School.

The lecture was dedicated to everything we needed to know about graduate school. Some of the points Dr. Weaver touched on include

Your choice of grad school: Consider the programs that these schools offer, the location, the level of funding the university receives for the research program you are interested in, the perceived attitude of the professors towards the graduate students, the financial aspect as well (fellowships, teaching assistantship, etc).

Applying to Grad School: Have a sufficient list of schools you can realistically get into to and include a few wild cards.

The Physics GRE: Prepare adequately, and take several practice exams under timed conditions, work and discuss with friends. It is important for your admission into graduate school.

Paying for Graduate Studies: Through fellowships and teaching aids.

Be realistic about the level of work you should expect a graduate school, because grad school is hard.

**(07-10-08)**

Lecture: Holography and Holograms

Coherence length- pretty short

Grating Spacing -> Δ/Sinθ,

if Δx Cosθ/λ ==Integer, we get a dark spot

Grating size

Exposure time

Lecture: General Relativity

No lecture

(07-24-08)

Tour of the K-state Nuclear Reactor

No lectures