Physical World 1 - 11.30am, Spring 2000 (Formulas provided during the test.)

Speed or velocity = (change in distance)/(change in time), v = d/t [Units: m/s]

Acceleration = (change in velocity)/(change in time), a = (vf - vi)/t [Units: m/s/s or m/s2]


For acceleration under gravity (starting from rest at time t = 0s)

Speed, v = gt [Units: m/s]

Distance, d = 0.5gt2 [Units: m]

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 m/s2


Newton's second law of motion, Net force, Fnet = ma [Units: N]

Impulse = Ft = change in momentum = Dp = pf - pi [Units: kg m/s]

Weight, W = mg [Units: N]

Momentum, p = mv [Units: kg m/s]

Work, W = Fd [Units: J]

Kinetic energy, KE = 0.5mv2 [Units: J]

Gravitational potential energy, GPE = mgd [Units: J]

Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation, F = Gm1m2/r2 [Units: J]

For molecules at a particular temperature T, KE = 0.5mv2 = 3 kB T/2

Heat energy, Q = m c DT [Units: J]

Heat energy, Q = m L [Units: J]

Wave speed, v = f l [Units: m/s]

Wave frequency, f = 1/T [Units: Hz]


DATA: Speed of sound in air = 330 m/s; Speed of light in a vacuum = 3 x 108 m/s


Coulomb's Law (force between charged particles), F = kq1q2/r2 [Units: J]

Electrical potential energy, EPE = V q [Units: J]

Current, I = q/t [Units: A]

Ohm's Law, I = V/R [Units: A]

Power, P = EPE/t = V I [Units: W = J/s]




charge, q [Units: C]; resistance, R [Units: W]; voltage, V [Units: V]

temperature, T [Units: oC or K]; specific heat capacity, c [Units: J/oC/kg]; latent heat, L [Units: J/kg]

wavelength, l [Units: m]; period, T [Units: s]; mass, m [Units: kg]