**Physical World 1 - 11.30am, Spring 2000** (**Formulas provided during the test. )**

Speed or velocity = (change in distance)/(change in time), v = d/t [Units: m/s]

Acceleration = (change in velocity)/(change in time), a = (v_{f} - v_{i})/t [Units: m/s/s or m/s^{2}]

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For acceleration under gravity (starting from rest at time t = 0s)

Speed, v = gt [Units: m/s]

Distance, d = 0.5gt^{2} [Units: m]

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 m/s^{2}

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Newton's second law of motion, Net force, F_{net} = ma [Units: N]

Impulse = Ft = change in momentum = Dp = p_{f} - p_{i} [Units: kg m/s]

Weight, W = mg [Units: N]

Momentum, p = mv [Units: kg m/s]

Work, W = Fd [Units: J]

Kinetic energy, KE = 0.5mv^{2} [Units: J]

Gravitational potential energy, GPE = mgd [Units: J]

Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation, F = Gm_{1}m_{2}/r^{2} [Units: J]

For molecules at a particular temperature T, KE = 0.5mv^{2} = 3 k_{B }T/2

Heat energy, Q = m c DT [Units: J]

Heat energy, Q = m L [Units: J]

Wave speed, v = f l [Units: m/s]

Wave frequency, f = 1/T [Units: Hz]

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**DATA: **Speed of sound in air = 330 m/s; Speed of light in a vacuum = 3 x 10^{8} m/s

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Coulomb's Law (force between charged particles), F = kq_{1}q_{2}/r^{2} [Units: J]

Electrical potential energy, EPE = V q [Units: J]

Current, I = q/t [Units: A]

Ohm's Law, I = V/R [Units: A]

Power, P = EPE/t = V I [Units: W = J/s]

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*SYMBOLS AND UNITS*

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charge, q [Units: C]; resistance, R [Units: W]; voltage, V [Units: V]

temperature, T [Units: ^{o}C or K]; specific heat capacity, c [Units: J/^{o}C/kg]; latent heat, L [Units: J/kg]

wavelength, l [Units: m]; period, T [Units: s]; mass, m [Units: kg]