Granular materials are particle systems in which the size of particles is large and the effect of thermal agitation is negligible. Recently
there has been much interest in the physics of noncohesive granular materials lying on a vertically vibrating surface. When the vibration
intensity is large, the granular systems show the properties of fluids, such as convection, heaping, traveling surface waves, pattern formation, and size segregation. When the vibration intensity becomes small, the systems show the property of solids, including glassy behavior. I will talk about these various properties of the granular materials under vibration.
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